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Training Guide

Syringe Access Landscape

Syringe Access in Your State

Below, you will find the criminalization and authorization policies of each state. 

 

Alabama Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Alaska Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

Arizona Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Arkansas Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prohibited from distributing syringes in this state but there are no protections for participants from being prosecuted under drug paraphernalia laws for possessing syringes. 

 

California Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state and/or local jurisdictions. The approval process requires local and law enforcement consultation and specifies extra restrictions on location, eligible entities, data requirements and requires renewals. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services, referrals, and supplies offered. 

 

Colorado Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from local jurisdictions. The approval process requires law enforcement consultation.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services and referrals offered. 

 

Connecticut Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws.There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services and referrals offered, as well as data collection requirements. 

 

Delaware Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by exchange limitations, secondary exchange limitations, requirements for services and referrals offered, and data collection requirements. 

 

Florida Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on eligible entities.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by exchange limitations, secondary exchange limitations, requirements for referrals and supplies offered, and data collection requirements.

 

Georgia Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services offered. 

 

Hawaii Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by exchange limitations and requirements for services offered. 

 

Idaho Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services offered and data collection requirements.

 

Illinois Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with exemption via court order for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state.  

 

Indiana Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on location and staffing.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services offered and data collection requirements.  

 

Iowa Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Kansas Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Kentucky Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from a local jurisdiction. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on eligible entities.

 

Louisiana Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. 

 

Maine Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on staffing.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by exchange limitations, requirements for referrals and services offered, and data collection requirements.

 

Maryland Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized  to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered.

 

Massachusetts Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. 

 

Michigan Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

Minnesota Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating  in this state.

 

Mississippi Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Missouri Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Montana Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

Nebraska Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Nevada Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services offered.

 

New Hampshire Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly allowed to operate in this state. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on eligible entities.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements. 

 

New Jersey Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state and local jurisdiction. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on location.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements.

 

New Mexico Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered.

 

New York Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on location.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements.

 

North Carolina Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is a protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on eligible entities.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements. 

 

North Dakota Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state and local jurisdictions. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on location, staffing, and renewals.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements.

 

Ohio Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the local jurisdiction. The approval process requires local and law enforcement consultations. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by referrals and services offered.

 

Oklahoma Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Oregon Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

Pennsylvania Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state. 

 

Rhode Island Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state. 

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered.

 

South Carolina Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

South Dakota Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.

 

Tennessee Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are allowed to operate in this state, subject to an approval process from the state and/or a local jurisdiction. The approval process specifies extra restrictions on location and renewals.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services and data collection requirements. 

 

Texas Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with no exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state, except for an authorized pilot program in Bexar county.

 

Utah Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for referrals and services offered and data collection requirements.

 

Vermont Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

 

Virginia Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

The operation of SSPs is constrained by requirements for services offered.

 

Washington Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are explicitly authorized to operate in this state.

 

West Virginia Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws with an exemption for SSP participants. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes. 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state.

 

Wisconsin Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are not included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not prevented from operating in this state. 

 

Wyoming Facts 

Criminalization 
Syringes are included in the state’s drug paraphernalia laws but not simple possession of a syringe. There is no protection against prosecution for drug residue on returned syringes.
 

Program Authorization
SSPs are not allowed to operate in this state.